REPORT 1
USDA subverts Animal Welfare Act in whistleblower protection case

REPORT 2
Ron Wood's crack-smoking experiments. A case study of waste, fraud and animal abuse

REPORT 3
"Scientific Welfare" needs reform. Wasteful, irrelevant and cruel research underwritten by U.S. tax dollars

REPORT 4
Retaliation Case of
Jan Moor-Jankowski, M.D.

REPORT 5
Top Ten Lies of the Department of Agriculture
In the matter of animal welfare whistleblower - Jan Moor-Jankowski, M.D.

REPORT 6
The History of Medical Progress written by Dr. Ray Greek, Director of the Medical Research Modernization Committee

"If I, an internationally recognized scientist and consultant to heads of state and national academies, couldnot secure protection under federal law, how can U.S. citizens believe thatanyone, let alone younger, lesser-known scientists, dare to oppose scientificmisconduct, animal abuse and the misdeeds of corrupt administrations?"- Jan Moor-Jankowski, M.D.

ACTION is part of Agency's long-standing pattern of failure to uphold the law.

The History of Medical Progress
written by Dr. Ray Greek, Director of the Medical Research Modernization Committee

Introduction | Surgical Advances | Medication Testing in Animals | Curing and Preventing Cancer |Do Animals Feel Pain? | AIDS Research with Animals
Heart Disease | Cardiovascular Disease | Childhood Diseases | Birth Defects

Cardiovascular Disease
High blood pressure or hypertension (HTN) affects approximately 50 millionAmericans. Approximately 30% of black people and 20% of white individualsover the age of 18 years, living in the US, suffer from HTN. As the populationages, HTN becomes more prevalent. Untreated HTN can lead to stroke, CAD,kidney failure, eye damage and death. Over the past twenty years more andbetter means of detecting HTN have resulted in a decrease in CAD and othercomplications of the disease. Clinical studies first led researchers toconclude that treating HTN would decrease the incidence of stroke and MI.HTN can be controlled, prevented or at least influenced by diet, cessationof smoking, cessation of drinking alcoholic beverages, and exercise. Theinfluence of salt on blood pressure was learned from epidemiological researchin Great Britain. Restricting salt in the diet has let many Americans doaway with medications or at least take less. As Sassard states:

"The fact that there are so many models for hypertension and atherosclerosisindicates that none of them is completely satisfactoryIdentical observationscan be made for the other severe cardiovascular pathologies: coronary ischemia,cerebral ischemia, cardiac insufficiency and rhythm disorders."

The treatment for high blood pressure today consists of, among other things,lifestyle changes and medications. Beta blockers are a type of medicationtaken by many people to treat HTN, dysrhythmias, headaches and other illnesses.Side effects of beta blockers include heart failure, bronchospasm, fatigueand others. Note what Drs. said about the side effects in 1984,
"Unwanted effects such as bradycardia, hypertension, heart failure,bronchial spasm, cold extremities and easy fatiguability are attributableto known actions of beta antagonists. With the exception of bradycardia,none of these was predicted from the initial animal studies."

Interestingly, one of the first treatments for hypertension was a salt restricteddiet and rest. Dr. Kempner, in 1944 advised a high fiber, low salt dietfor his patients suffering from HTN. It worked. Imagine that! Modify yourdiet and lifestyle and maybe you will be healthier. In describing how theanti-hypertensive class of medications was developed, Ray Gifford MD, amajor contributor to knowledge in the field states, "We had no protocols,no informed signed consents, no statistical consultation. We just gave thedrugs in any combination we thought would reduce blood pressure and minimizeside effects."
Dr. Gifford goes on to state,"I can't help but wonder how long it wouldtake to get hydralazine or chlorothiazide on the market today?"

Although people who earn their living by experimenting on animals will tryto convince you that all medical knowledge has been obtained via calculatedexperiments on animals in a controlled laboratory environment, this exampleis more in keeping with how actual discoveries take place. There are manymore such examples of where medical knowledge actually came from. More thanthe respected medical researchers of today would like you to know. The developmentof the anti-hypertensive medications was not only not dependent upon animals,it would have been impossible to use animals. Note what Dr. Gross statesin the textbook The Scientific Basis of Official Regulation of Drug Researchand Development,
"The anti-hypertensive effect of diuretics does not occur in normotensiveanimals and is difficult to obtain in hypertensive rats or dogs. Similarproblems have to be faced with respect to the antihypertensive action ofbeta-adrenoreceptor blocking drugs. The beneficial effect of phentolamine,of prazosin, or of hydralazine in the treatment of heart failure is hardlydemonstrable in experimental animal modelsThe predictive value of the resultsof numerous preclinical [animal] tests or experimental models for the therapeuticuselessness of a drug is at best uncertain, and the predictability willnot be improved by simply increasing the number of testsOne of the mostwidely studied examples of a disease model is experimental hypertension,but for the development of new drugs for the treatment of high blood pressurethe various types of experimental hypertension are dispensable tools"
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the USA. Most victims of strokelive with the residual of the devastating attack. Paralysis, loss of theunderstanding of speech, the inability to speak, inability to walk or feelsensations, loss of memory and other terrible effects are frequently thesequellae of stroke. Many animal experiments have been conducted in orderto elucidate knowledge which would lead to stoke prevention or diminishthe sequellae of stroke. HTN is a known cause of stroke. As with other causesof stroke such as high cholesterol and smoking, HTN was discovered to bea risk factor by epidemiological studies. With early detection and propermedication, stroke can be prevented in this population. Another factor leadingto stroke is atherosclerotic plaque deposited in the carotid arteries. Thisplaque can break loose and go into the circulation of the brain, occludingblood flow and causing a stroke. The ability to visualize the plaques isaided by injecting dye into the arteries. This is called angiography. Itwas invented based on clinical research. No lab animal has cerebral bloodsupply comparable to man's. Most animals have greater cerebral circulatoryreserve. These differences profoundly affect the implications of any researchfindings.

Dr. Whisnant stated in 1958 that, "For the most part, these studieshave tended to lag behind clinical and pathologic-anatomic investigationand too frequently have served as confirmatory work after clinical impressionshave been virtually accepted"It is obvious at the outset, that investigationswith laboratory animals can not be directly related to human disease. Noexperimental animal has an entirely comparable cerebrovascular supply tothat of man"
Dr. Neff of New England Medical Center stated in 1989 in Stroke,
"The repeated failures of laboratory proven stroke therapies in humanscan be due only to the inapplicability of animal models to human cerebralvascular disease."

Between 1978 and 1988, 25 drugs were shown to be effective in treating strokein animals. None of these worked in humans. Along the same line, 22 drugshave been tested on animals and shown to be therapeutic in spinal cord injury.Again, none worked in humans. Dr. Wiebers, of the Mayo clinic, has summarizedthe contribution of animal research to knowledge of stroke as follows:
"A large proportion of patients with ischemic stroke have underlyingmulti-focal atherosclerosis which has developed over may years or decades.Such individuals may have numerous associated risk factors which predisposeto this disease processSome attempts have been made to model atherosclerosisin some animal species and to account for hypertension and increasing age,but it is clear that these circumstances do not reproduce the human situation.In fact, most models of ischemic stroke are derived from young animals withno underlying chronic disease or any genetic predisposition to such diseasesManyvariations, both within and between species, have been recognized not onlyin the vascular anatomy, but also in histopathologic response to identicalischemic insults and treatment responses to cerebral schemaWhile the useof these experimental [animal] models has provided much information aboutthe methods of producing and potentially treating cerebral schema and infarctionin specific animal species and experimental circumstances, the relevanceof most of these data to human conditions remains dubiousalthough animalmodels of cerebral schema have been used extensively to test new therapiesin human stroke, their record for identifying clinically effective drugshas been disappointing

"Among those [25] compounds subjected to clinical trials, none hasproven efficacious, nor have any of these agents come into general clinicaluse.
"Ultimately, however, the answers to many of our questions regardingthe underlying pathophysiology and treatment of stroke do not lie with continuedattempts to model the human situation more perfectly in animals, but ratherwith the development of techniques to enable the study of more basic metabolism,pathophysiology, and anatomical imaging detail in living humans."

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